Functions and Powers of the NPC

To amend the Constitution and to supervise its enforcement

Only the NPC has the power to a mend the Constitution. Amendments to the Constitution must be proposed by the NPC’s Standing Committee or by more than one-fifth of NPC deputies and must be adopted by vote of more than two-thirds of all the deputies to the NPC. The current Constitution was adopted in 1982, and it was amended in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018. To uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its enforcement, the NPC is also granted the power to supervise its enforcement.

To enact and amend basic laws governing criminal offenses, civil affairs, the State organs and other matters

For example, the NPC has enacted the Criminal Law, the Criminal Procedure Law, the Civil Law, the Civil Procedure Law, the Organic Law of the NPC, the Organic Law of the State Council, the Organic Law of Local People’ s Congresses and Local People’ s Governments, the Supervision Law, the Organic Law of the People’ s Courts, the Organic Law of the People’ s Procuratorates, the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Electoral Law, the Law on Deputies to the NPC and to t he Local People’ s Congresses at Various Levels, the Marriage Law, the Nationality Law, the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region.

To elect, decide to appoint and remove from office members of central State organs

The NPC elects the President and Vice - President of the People’ s Republic of China, the Chairperson, vice-chairpersons, secretary-general and members of its Standing Committee, as well as the director of the National Supervisory Commission. It decides on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President, and also decides on the choice of the vice- premiers, State councilors, ministers in charge of minis tries or commissions, the governor of the People ’ s Bank of China, and the auditor- general and secretary-general of the State Council, upon nomination by the Premier. It elects the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and decides on the choice of all other members of this commission upon nomination by the Chairman. It also elects the President of the Supreme People’ s Court and the Procurator General of the Supreme People’ s Procuratorate. It has the power to remove any of the above-mentioned officials from office.

To determine major State issues

The NPC is mandated to review and approve reports on the plan for national economic and social development and its implementation. It also reviews reports on the central and local budgets and their implementation. It can approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, decide on the establishment of special administrative regions and the systems to be instituted there, and decide on questions of war and peace.

For example, the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region, Hainan province, Chongqing Municipality and the building of the Three Gorges Dam Project on the Yangtze River were all decided by the NPC.